According to the CoHE (sorry, reg. req.), the AAUP has censured Benedict College for its firing of two professors who refused to grade freshmen on "effort". Bear in mind that we're not talking one of those little wiggles that affects even the sternest grader from time to time, but, rather, a requirement that "effort" count for 60% of a freshman's grade (and 50% of a sophomore's grade, according to the article). How can you grade something that cannot be independently verified and may have no tangible outcome?